TableĀ 1.

Targets to 2030 and indicators for the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

TargetsIndicatorsGeoscience link
7.1. By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services
  • Proportion of population with access to electricity

  • Proportion of population with primary reliance on clean fuels and technology

Geoscience for the exploration and sustainability of renewable and appropriately used fossil energy sources
7.2. By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mixRenewable energy share in the total final energy consumptionGeoscience to support the expansion of renewable (e.g. geothermal, wind-turbine ground conditions)
7.3. By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiencyEnergy intensity measured in terms of primary energy and GDPHolistic planning involving the subsurface
7.A. By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency, and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technologyMobilized amount of United States dollars per year starting in 2020 accountable towards the $100 billion commitmentImproved links between geoscientists/geoscience institutions and other energy specialists
7.B. By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing states, and land-locked developing countries, in accordance with their respective programmes of supportInvestments in energy efficiency as a percentage of GDP and the amount of foreign direct investment in financial transfer for infrastructure and technology to sustainable development servicesImproved links between geoscientists/geoscience institutions and energy system specialists, including energy distribution specialists and finance sector