Table 2.

Proximate and organic matter analysis from the Chang 7 Member oil shale

Proximate analysis1 itemsChang 7 Member oil shale2 (average, N = 35)Organic matter abundance analysis items3Chang 7 Member oil shale4 (average)
Oil yield (wt%)/8.00TOC (wt%)17.76 (N = 72)
 Qnet,v,ar (MJ kg−1)8.35Chloroform bitumen A (wt%)0.4–1
 Ad (wt%)69.24S1 (mg HC/g rock)3.06 (N = 41)
 St,d (wt%)4.69S2 (mg HC/g rock)60.51 (N = 40)
 Mt (wt%)3.37S3 (mg CO2/g rock)7.78 (N = 41)
 Vdaf (wt%)68.16S1 + S2 (HC/g rock)70.00 (N = 76)
 Cad (wt%)19.08IH (mg/g)407.80 (N = 434)
 Had (wt%)2.13IO (mg/g)63.39 (N = 19)
ARD (g cm−3)1.77

N, number of samples.

Analytical methods: the analytical method for the oil yield uses Gray–King low-temperature distillation in different laboratories following Chinese standard GB-T 1341-2007 (AQSIQ & SAC 2007); the analytical method for ash yield uses the fast ashing method in different laboratories following Chinese standard GB/T 212-2008 (AQSIQ & SAC 2008a); and the analytical method for calorific value uses the environmental isothermal automatic oxygen bomb calorimeter in different laboratories following Chinese standard GB/T 213-2008 (AQSIQ & SAC 2008b).

Analytical methods: the analytical method for total organic carbon (TOC) uses the Carbon/Sulfur Determinator in different laboratories following Chinese standards GB/T 19145-2003 (AQSIQ & SAC 2003); the analytical method for chloroform bitumen A analysis uses Soxhlet extraction equipment in different laboratories following the enterprise standard of CN-PC SY/T5118-2005 (NDRC 2005); and the analytical method for rock pyrolysis analysis uses Rock-Eval pyrolysis apparatus in different laboratories following Chinese standard GB/T 18602-2012 (Tmax = 425–450°C) (AQSIQ & SAC 2012).

  • 1 Proximate analysis: Qnet,v,ar, net calorific value at constant volume; Ad, ash content (dry basis); St,d, sulphur content(dry basis); Mt, total moisture; Vdaf, volatile (dry ash-free basis); Cad, carbon (air dry basis); Had, hydrogen (air dry basis); ARD, apparent density.

  • 2 Chang 7 Member oil shale data were compiled from Lu et al. (2006), Zhang et al. (2006), Ren (2007), Changqing Oilfield Company, PetroChina (2008), Bai et al. (2009) and Zhang et al. (2013).

  • 3 Organic matter abundance analysis: TOC (total organic carbon) is the content of residual organic matter in oil shale (%); chloroform bitumen ‘A’ (%) is the ratio of the extracted bitumen mass to the mass of rock sample; S1 is the content of soluble hydrocarbon in oil shale (mg HC/g rock); S2 is the content of pyrolytic hydrocarbon in oil shale (mg HC/g rock); S3 is the content of pyrolytic carbon dioxide in oil shale (mg CO2/g rock); S1 + S2 is the potential amount of hydrocarbon generation (mg HC/g rock); IH = QHC/COT × 100 and IO=QCO2/COT×100 (where QHC is hydrocarbon from kerogen pyrolysis and extractable hydrocarbon components; COT is total organic carbon; and QCO2 is the amount of CO2).

  • 4 Chang 7 Member oil shale data were compiled from Yang & Zhang (2005), Ren (2007), Changqing Oilfield Company, PetroChina (2008), Bai et al. (2009), Zhang et al. (2013), Ma et al. (2016) and Yang et al. (2016b).